Visualization & Exploration of Blood Flow in Aneurysms

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Due to the current advances in the field of medical imaging and an increase of MR and CT brain scans as part of diagnostic procedures, the number of cerebral aneurysm findings is rising. These dilated parts of cerebral arteries exhibit a high risk of rupture, which can lead to internal bleedings with fatal consequences for the patient (mortality rate: up to 60%). To reduce the risk for the patient most of the interventions are performed minimal invasive by filling the aneurysm with small metal coils (Coiling) and stabilizing them with a tubular metal mesh (Stent) if necessary. Since the intervention itself involves the risk of causing an internal bleeding, a detailed risk estimation and a deeper insight into the blood flow dynamics, that influence the development of cerebral aneurysms, is crucial. In current research computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is the common approach to gain a better understanding for the dynamic characteristics of the internal blood flow.

The result of the CFD simulation is a multidimensional and often time dependent dataset. Our aim is to develop an application-specific pipeline to make this complex data accessible to medical researchers. Besides different approaches to visualize the flow characteristics this pipeline also needs to contain the analysis of morphological features and their relation to the flow characteristics. One application of this pipeline is the creation of expressive comparison visualizations in order to gain insight into the development of an aneurysm over time or into the affect a change in the incoming blood-flow has onto the whole dynamic system. Due to the interdisciplinary character of this research area we are working together with Institute of Neuroradiology (medical experts), the Institute of Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics (CFD simulation), the Image Processing Workgroup (segmentation), the Institute of Electronics, Signal Processing and Communication Technology (evaluation of the CFD simulation). In October 2008 this cooperation formed the base for the Mobestan project supported by the state of Saxony-Anhalt.

A short summarization of our current field of research:

  • Semi-/automatic extraction and visualization of morphological information and flow features
  • Guided exploration and overview visualization of complex flow datasets
  • Focus & Context visualization of cerebral vasculature
  • Combined (internal flow data – surface morphology) and comparing (change over time, after stent application, etc.) visualizations

For Interested Students

If you are interested in working in this versatile and challenging topic feel free to visit our student offers subpage or contact us directly (see below). We offer “Hiwi”-jobs as well as “Laborpraktika / IT-Projekte” and various topics for your Bachelor or Master's Thesis/Diploma.

Contact

Name Benjamin Köhler, M.Sc.
Dr.-Ing. Steffen Oeltze-Jafra
Adress Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
Fakultät für Informatik / ISG, PSF 4120
39016 Magdeburg
Phone (+49-391) 67-1 27 59
Fax (+49 391) 67-1 11 64

Images

Publications


Sylvia Glaßer, Jan Hirsch, Philipp Berg, Patrick Saalfeld, Oliver Beuing, Gabor Janiga, Bernhard Preim
Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin (BVM), pp. 236-241, 2016
BIBTeX
@InProceedings{Glasser_2016_BVM,
Title = {{Evaluation of Time-Dependent Wall Shear Stress Visualizations for Cerebral Aneurysms}},
Author = {Sylvia Glaßer and Jan Hirsch and Philipp Berg and Patrick Saalfeld and Oliver Beuing and Gabor Janiga and Bernhard Preim},
Booktitle = {{Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin (BVM)}},
Year = {2016},
Pages = {236--241},
Keywords = {BVM},
Owner = {klemm},
Timestamp = {2015.12.17}
}
Steffen Oeltze-Jafra, Juan R. Cebral, Gábor Janiga, Bernhard Preim
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG), 22 (1), pp. 757-766, 2016
BIBTeX
Media
@Article{Oeltze_2015_TVCG,
Title = {{Cluster Analysis of Vortical Flow in Simulations of Cerebral Aneurysm Hemodynamics}},
Author = {Steffen Oeltze-Jafra and Juan R. Cebral and Gábor Janiga and Bernhard Preim},
Journal = {{IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG)}},
Year = {2016},
Number = {1},
Pages = {757--766},
Volume = {22 (1)},
Owner = {oeltze-jafra},
Timestamp = {2015.08.10}
}
Investigating Vortical Flow in a Giant Aneurysm
The video illustrates our pipeline for investigating vortices in simulations of cerebral aneurysm hemodynamics. The demonstration case is a giant aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) at the origin of the ophtalmic artery. The corresponding hemodynamic data was generated by Juan R. Cebral. In a first step, vortex core line segments are extracted from time step t of the simulation data and continuous core lines are formed in an enhancement step. Then, streamlines are integrated from core line points. To reduce visual clutter, streamlines are grouped based on equilibrium points along the core lines. The groups may be optionally refined in a clustering step generating a more detailed visualization of the flow pattern, especially further off the core lines. Finally, group/cluster representatives are computed and integrated with other simulated or derived data in a visual summary. The aneurysm at hand contains three major vortices. Among them is a so-called embedded vortex. This type of vortex is characterized by a vortex layer swirling in one direction along the vortex core line, and a second vortex layer swirling in the opposite direction and enveloping the first. The video illustrates a smart visibility strategy supporting the investigation of flow in the presence of multiple vortices. In an overview visualization, the representatives of all vortices are displayed. As the user zooms in on a vortex, all other vortices gradually disappear. If the user continues to zoom in, the representatives of the vortex in focus also start to fade-out and its spherical glyphs gradually shrink to reveal the core line and facilitate an inspection of its velocity magnitude profile.
Kai Lawonn, Sylvia Glaßer, Anna Vilanova, Bernhard Preim, Tobias Isenberg
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG), 22 (1), pp. 728-737, 2015
BIBTeX
Media
@Article{Lawonn_2015_TVCG,
Title = {{Occlusion-free Blood Flow Animation with Wall Thickness Visualization}},
Author = {Kai Lawonn and Sylvia Glaßer and Anna Vilanova and Bernhard Preim and Tobias Isenberg},
Journal = {{IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG)}},
Year = {2015},
Number = {1},
Pages = {728--737},
Volume = {22 (1)},
Owner = {klemm},
Timestamp = {2015.08.10}
}
Occlusion-free Blood Flow Animation with Wall Thickness Visualization
Patrick Saalfeld, Alexandra Baer, Uta Preim, Bernhard Preim, Kai Lawonn
Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (GRAPP), pp. 379-390, 2015
BIBTeX
Media
@InProceedings{Saalfeld_2015_GRAPP,
Title = {{Sketching 2D Vessels and Vascular Diseases with Integrated Blood Flow}},
Author = {Patrick Saalfeld and Alexandra Baer and Uta Preim and Bernhard Preim and Kai Lawonn},
Booktitle = {{Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (GRAPP)}},
Year = {2015},
Address = {Berlin},
Month = {März},
Pages = {379--390},
Owner = {saalfeld},
Timestamp = {2015.01.19}
}
Flatmap
Sketching 2D Vessels and Vascular Diseases with Integrated Blood Flow
Steffen Oeltze, Dirk J. Lehmann, Alexander Kuhn, Gabor Janiga, Holger Theisel, Bernhard Preim
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG), 20(5), pp. 686-701, 2014
BIBTeX
Media
@Article{Oeltze_2014_TVCG,
Title = {{Blood Flow Clustering and Applications in Virtual Stenting of Intracranial Aneurysms}},
Author = {Steffen Oeltze and Dirk J. Lehmann and Alexander Kuhn and Gabor Janiga and Holger Theisel and Bernhard Preim},
Journal = {{IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG)}},
Year = {2014},
Pages = {686--701},
Volume = {20(5)},
Keywords = {TVCG,d},
Owner = {oeltze},
Timestamp = {2014.01.01}
}
Clustering Blood Flow in a Saccular Side-Wall Aneurysm
The blood flow in a saccular side-wall aneurysm has been simulated based on the vascular morphology extracted from patient-individual data. The resulting flow data is often visualized by a dense and cluttered set of streamlines. Clustering the streamlines and computing cluster representatives reduces visual clutter and exposes characteristic flow structures. The resulting flow summary benefits the assessment of aneurysmal hemodynamics.
Roy van Pelt, Rocco Gasteiger, Kai Lawonn, Monique Meuschke, Bernhard Preim
Computer Graphics Forum (Eurographics Conference on Visualization (EuroVis) 2014), 33(3), pp. 131-140, 2014
BIBTeX
@Article{Pelt_2014_CGF,
Title = {{Comparative Blood Flow Visualization for Cerebral Aneurysm Treatment Assessment}},
Author = {Roy van Pelt and Rocco Gasteiger and Kai Lawonn and Monique Meuschke and Bernhard Preim},
Journal = {{Computer Graphics Forum (Eurographics Conference on Visualization (EuroVis) 2014)}},
Year = {2014},
Month = {09.-13.06.2014},
Number = {3},
Pages = {131--140},
Volume = {33(3)},
Address = {Swansea, Wales, UK},
Booktitle = {{Eurographics Conference on Visualization (EuroVis) 2014}},
Owner = {schumann},
Timestamp = {2014.06.27}
}
Gabor Janiga, Philipp Berg, Oliver Beuing, Mathias Neugebauer, Rocco Gasteiger, Bernhard Preim, Georg Rose, Martin Skalej, Dominque Thevenin
Biomedical Engineering, 58 (3), pp. 303-314, 2013
BIBTeX
@Article{Janiga_2013_BioEng,
Title = {{Recommendations for accurate numerical blood flow simulations of stented intracranial aneurysms}},
Author = {Gabor Janiga and Philipp Berg and Oliver Beuing and Mathias Neugebauer and Rocco Gasteiger and Bernhard Preim and Georg Rose and Martin Skalej and Dominque Thevenin},
Journal = {{Biomedical Engineering}},
Year = {2013},
Pages = {303---314},
Volume = {58 (3)},
Owner = {schumann},
Timestamp = {2013.06.13}
}
Mathias Neugebauer, Kai Lawonn, Oliver Beuing, Bernhard Preim
International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 8(2), pp. 279-289, 2013
BIBTeX
@Article{Neugebauer_2013_JCARS,
Title = {{Automatic Generation of Anatomic Characteristics from Cerebral Aneurysm Surface Models}},
Author = {Mathias Neugebauer and Kai Lawonn and Oliver Beuing and Bernhard Preim},
Journal = {{International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery}},
Year = {2013},
Month = {March},
Pages = {279--289},
Volume = {8(2)},
Owner = {schumann},
Timestamp = {2013.09.23}
}
Mathias Neugebauer, Kai Lawonn, Oliver Beuing, Philipp Berg, Gabor Janiga, Bernhard Preim
Computer Graphics Forum, 32(3), pp. 251-260, 2013
BIBTeX
Media
@Article{Neugebauer_2013_CGF,
Title = {{AmniVis - A System for Qualitative Exploration of Near-Wall Hemodynamics in Cerebral Aneurysms}},
Author = {Mathias Neugebauer and Kai Lawonn and Oliver Beuing and Philipp Berg and Gabor Janiga and Bernhard Preim},
Journal = {{Computer Graphics Forum}},
Year = {2013},
Pages = {251--260},
Volume = {32(3)},
Owner = {schumann},
Timestamp = {2013.05.24}
}
AmniVis
AmniVis - A system for visual qualitative exploration of near-wall flow patterns in cerebral aneurysms.
Rocco Gasteiger, Dirk J. Lehmann, Roy van Pelt, Gabor Janiga, Oliver Beuing, Anna Vilanova, Holger Theisel, Bernhard Preim
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG), 18(12), pp. 2178-2187, 2012
BIBTeX
Media
@Article{Gasteiger_2012_VIS,
Title = {{Automatic Detection and Visualization of Qualitative Hemodynamic Characteristics in Cerebral Aneurysms}},
Author = {Rocco Gasteiger and Dirk J. Lehmann and Roy van Pelt and Gabor Janiga and Oliver Beuing and Anna Vilanova and Holger Theisel and Bernhard Preim},
Journal = {{IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG)}},
Year = {2012},
Month = {December},
Number = {12},
Pages = {2178--2187},
Volume = {18(12)},
Doi = {xx.xxxx/xxxxxxx.xxxxxxx}
}
Video
The video presents the automatically extracted inflow jet and impingement zone of a steady flow dataset in a cerebral aneurysm. The extraction approach is based on the inflow streamlines seeded at the ostium and employs local streamline properties (e.g., curvature and distances to the aneurysm wall). Several visualization techniques depict both characteristics.
Benjamin Köhler, Mathias Neugebauer, Rocco Gasteiger, Gábor Janiga, Oliver Speck, Bernhard Preim
Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin, pp. 81-86, 2012
BIBTeX
@InProceedings{Koehler_2012_BVM,
Title = {{Surface-Based Seeding for Blood Flow Exploration}},
Author = {Benjamin Köhler and Mathias Neugebauer and Rocco Gasteiger and Gábor Janiga and Oliver Speck and Bernhard Preim},
Booktitle = {{Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin}},
Year = {2012},
Address = {Berlin},
Month = {18.-20. März},
Pages = {81--86},
Owner = {schumann},
Timestamp = {2012.03.21}
}
Steffen Oeltze, Dirk J. Lehmann, Holger Theisel, Bernhard Preim
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, 2012
BIBTeX
@TechReport{Oeltze_2012_TR,
Title = {{Evaluation of Streamline Clustering Techniques for Blood Flow Data}},
Author = {Steffen Oeltze and Dirk J. Lehmann and Holger Theisel and Bernhard Preim},
Institution = {{Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg}},
Year = {2012},
Month = {Dezember},
Number = {FIN-06-2012},
Owner = {schumann},
Timestamp = {2014.01.09}
}
Rocco Gasteiger, Gabor Janiga, Daniel Stucht, Anja Hennemuth, Ola Friman, Oliver Speck, Michael Markl, Bernhard Preim
Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin (BVM), pp. 304-308, 2011
BIBTeX
@InProceedings{Gasteiger_2011_BVM,
Title = {{Vergleich zwischen 7 Tesla 4D PC-MRI Flussmessung und CFD-Simulation}},
Author = {Rocco Gasteiger and Gabor Janiga and Daniel Stucht and Anja Hennemuth and Ola Friman and Oliver Speck and Michael Markl and Bernhard Preim},
Booktitle = {{Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin (BVM)}},
Year = {2011},
Address = {Lübeck},
Month = {20.-22. März},
Pages = {304--308},
Keywords = {BVM},
Owner = {Rocco Gasteiger},
Timestamp = {2011.01.31}
}
Rocco Gasteiger, Mathias Neugebauer, Oliver Beuing, Bernhard Preim
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG), 17, pp. 2183-2192, 2011
BIBTeX
Media
@Article{Gasteiger_2011_VIS,
Title = {{The FLOWLENS: A Focus-and-Context Visualization Approach for Exploration of Blood Flow in Cerebral Aneurysms}},
Author = {Rocco Gasteiger and Mathias Neugebauer and Oliver Beuing and Bernhard Preim},
Journal = {{IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG)}},
Year = {2011},
Number = {12},
Pages = {2183-2192},
Volume = {17},
Keywords = {VIS, d},
Owner = {Rocco Gasteiger},
Timestamp = {2011.07.19}
}
Lens-Based Flow Exploration of Cerebral Aneurysms
This video presents the FlowLens concept, a visual exploration approach of blood flow data in cerebral aneurysms. Relevant hemodynamic attributes, e.g., wall shear stress or pressure, are grouped to focus-and-context pairs and assigned to three different spatial scopes (global, near-wall, aneurysm). A 2.5D lens shape is used to embed locally the visualization of the context attribute within the focus attribute.
Mathias Neugebauer, Bernhard Preim
Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin (BVM), pp. 399-403, 2011
BIBTeX
@InProceedings{Neugebauer_2011_BVM,
Title = {{Generation of a Smooth Ostium Surface for Aneurysm Surface Models}},
Author = {Mathias Neugebauer and Bernhard Preim},
Booktitle = {{Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin (BVM)}},
Year = {2011},
Address = {Lübeck},
Month = {20.-22. März},
Pages = {399--403},
Owner = {Mathias},
Timestamp = {2011.01.10}
}
Mathias Neugebauer, Gabor Janiga, Oliver Beuing, Martin Skalej, Bernhard Preim
Computer Graphics Forum (EuroVis), 30(3), pp. 1041-1050, 2011
BIBTeX
Media
@Article{Neugebauer_2011_Eurovis,
Title = {{Anatomy-Guided Multi-Level Exploration of Blood Flow in Cerebral Aneurysms}},
Author = {Mathias Neugebauer and Gabor Janiga and Oliver Beuing and Martin Skalej and Bernhard Preim},
Journal = {{Computer Graphics Forum (EuroVis)}},
Year = {2011},
Pages = {1041--1050},
Volume = {30(3)},
Owner = {Mathias},
Timestamp = {2011.04.04}
}
Anatomy-Guided Multi-Level Exploration of Blood Flow
We present a three-scope approach for qualitative visual exploration of blood flow data. The scopes include a global scope, an ostium scope and a local scope. They are related to anatomic features such as the centerline, the ostium or the central aneurysm axis. The exploration includes multi-parameter visualisations and specialized widgets.
Daniel Stucht, Rocco Gasteiger, Steffen Serowy, Michael Markl, Bernhard Preim, Oliver Speck
Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin (BVM), pp. 424-428, 2011
BIBTeX
@InProceedings{Stucht_2011_BVM,
Title = {{Bildbasierte Korrektur von Phasensprüngen in 4D PC-MRI Flussdaten}},
Author = {Daniel Stucht and Rocco Gasteiger and Steffen Serowy and Michael Markl and Bernhard Preim and Oliver Speck},
Booktitle = {{Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin (BVM)}},
Year = {2011},
Address = {Lübeck},
Month = {20.-22. März},
Pages = {424--428},
Keywords = {BVM},
Owner = {Rocco Gasteiger},
Timestamp = {2011.01.31}
}
Rocco Gasteiger, Mathias Neugebauer, Volker Diehl, Oliver Beuing, Bernhard Preim
Proc. of CURAC, pp. 61-66, 2010
BIBTeX
@InProceedings{Gasteiger_2010_CURAC,
Title = {{Entwurf einer angepassten Visualisierung von zerebralen Aneurysmen mit innenliegenden Blutflussinformationen}},
Author = {Rocco Gasteiger and Mathias Neugebauer and Volker Diehl and Oliver Beuing and Bernhard Preim},
Booktitle = {{Proc. of CURAC}},
Year = {2010},
Address = {Düsseldorf},
Month = {November},
Pages = {61--66},
Keywords = {CURAC,d},
Owner = {schumann},
Timestamp = {2010.10.15}
}
Rocco Gasteiger, Mathias Neugebauer, Christoph Kubisch, Bernhard Preim
Eurographics Workshop on Visual Computing for Biology and Medicine (EG VCBM), pp. 25-32, 2010
BIBTeX
Media
@InProceedings{Gasteiger_2010_VCBM,
Title = {{Adapted Surface Visualization of Cerebral Aneurysms with Embedded Blood Flow Information}},
Author = {Rocco Gasteiger and Mathias Neugebauer and Christoph Kubisch and Bernhard Preim},
Booktitle = {{Eurographics Workshop on Visual Computing for Biology and Medicine (EG VCBM)}},
Year = {2010},
Pages = {25-32},
Keywords = {VCBM;d},
Owner = {schumann},
Timestamp = {2010.04.19}
}
Adaptive Surface Visualization
This video presents a new adaptive visualization technique of Cerebral Aneurysms with Embedded Blood Flow Information. It combines smart visibility techniques, depth cues, and line rendering. More flow perception is achieved in comparison to semi-transparent surface visualization of the enclosing aneurysm.
Mathias Neugebauer, Gabor Janiga, Oliver Beuing, Martin Skalej, Bernhard Preim
Biomed Tech, 55, pp. 37-41, 2010
BIBTeX
@Article{Neugebauer_2010_BMT,
Title = {{Modellbildung und Simulation - Computer-Aided Modelling of Blood Flow for the Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms}},
Author = {Mathias Neugebauer and Gabor Janiga and Oliver Beuing and Martin Skalej and Bernhard Preim},
Journal = {{Biomed Tech}},
Year = {2010},
Number = {Suppl. 1},
Pages = {37--41},
Volume = {55},
Owner = {Mathias},
Timestamp = {2011.01.10}
}
Mathias Neugebauer, Volker Diehl, Martin Skalej, Bernhard Preim
VMV 2010 - Vision Modeling Visualization, pp. 307-314, 2010
BIBTeX
Media
@InProceedings{Neugebauer_2010_VMV,
Title = {{Geometric Reconstruction of the Ostium of Cerebral Aneurysms}},
Author = {Mathias Neugebauer and Volker Diehl and Martin Skalej and Bernhard Preim},
Booktitle = {{VMV 2010 - Vision, Modeling, Visualization}},
Year = {2010},
Address = {Siegen},
Editor = {Reinhard Koch and Andreas Kolb and Christopf Rezk-Salama},
Month = {15.-17. November},
Pages = {307--314},
Keywords = {VMV,d},
Owner = {schumann},
Timestamp = {2010.11.29}
}
Reconstruction of the Ostium
This video presents an approach to automatically extract important landmarks and geometrically reconstruct the ostium. As shown, the ostium can be used to seperate the aneurysm from the parent vessel. It forms the basis for a variety of applications, e.g. feature-aware visualization or guided interaction.
Mathias Neugebauer, Rocco Gasteiger, Volker Diehl, Oliver Beuing, Bernhard Preim
International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (CARS), 4 (Supplement 1), pp. 112-113, 2009
BIBTeX
@Article{Neugebauer_2009_CARS,
Title = {{Automatic generation of context visualizations for cerebral aneurysms from MRA datasets}},
Author = {Mathias Neugebauer and Rocco Gasteiger and Volker Diehl and Oliver Beuing and Bernhard Preim},
Journal = {{International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (CARS)}},
Year = {2009},
Month = {Juni},
Pages = {112--113},
Volume = {4 (Supplement 1)},
Keywords = {CARS,d},
Owner = {schumann},
Timestamp = {2009.06.30}
}
Mathias Neugebauer, Rocco Gasteiger, Oliver Beuing, Volker Diehl, Martin Skalej, Bernhard Preim
Computer Graphics Forum (EuroVis), pp. 895-902, 2009
BIBTeX
Media
@InProceedings{Neugebauer_2009_Eurovis,
Title = {{Map Displays for the Analysis of Scalar Data on Cerebral Aneurysm Surfaces}},
Author = {Mathias Neugebauer and Rocco Gasteiger and Oliver Beuing and Volker Diehl and Martin Skalej and Bernhard Preim},
Booktitle = {{Computer Graphics Forum (EuroVis)}},
Year = {2009},
Address = {Berlin},
Month = {10.-12. Juni},
Pages = {895--902},
Volume = {28 (3)},
Keywords = {Eurovis,d},
Owner = {schumann},
Timestamp = {2009.06.25}
}
Flatmap
An overview visualization for scalar values (in this case wall shear stress) mapped on the aneurysm surface.
M. Neugebauer, G. Janiga, S. Zachow, M. Skalej, B. Preim
Proc. Simulation and Visualization, pp. 221-236, 2008
BIBTeX
@InProceedings{Neugebauer_2008_SimVis,
Title = {{Generierung qualitativ hochwertiger Modelle für die Simulation von Blutfluss in zerebralen Aneurysmen}},
Author = {M. Neugebauer and G. Janiga and S. Zachow and M. Skalej and B. Preim},
Booktitle = {{Proc. Simulation and Visualization}},
Year = {2008},
Pages = {221--236},
File = {SimVis2008_Neugebauer.pdf:Z\:\\pub\\files\\SimVis2008_Neugebauer.pdf:PDF},
Keywords = {SimVis,d},
Owner = {schumann},
Timestamp = {2008.01.30}
}